icfar: TO

LOCATION: Tetto Frati, Torino, Italy (44°53’ N, 7 41’ E)- See map
RU: Università degli Studi di TORINO- Dipartimento di SCIENZE AGRARIE, FORESTALI e ALIMENTARI
START-END YEARS: 1992 – on going
CROP TYPE: Maize-based forage systems: maize for silage, maize for grain (stalks, leaves, cobs and bracts are chopped and incorporated into the soil), double annual crop with Italian Ryegrass in autumn and winter and maize for silage in spring and summer, grass ley in rotation with maize for silage, lucerne ley in rotation with maize for silage, permanent meadow
FACTORS: Different management of crop rotation and management of crop residues; N fertilization type (urea, farmyard manure, bovine slurry) and amount (0-350 kg ha-1 of N)

Long term agricultural platform aimed at studying:
• soil C and N turnover: balance and effects on plant growth and yield;
• mineral and organic (farmyard manure, bovine slurry) fertilizer efficiency;
• water and mineral N dynamics through soil;
• GHGs emissions from soil; microbial diversity in agroecosystems.
A wide range of treatments are compared, as a combination of 6 cropping systems * 9 fertilization managements of maize-based forage systems. Treatments differ for C and N additions, and replicate real farm operations in 75 m² plots, 3 randomized blocks design. It was established in 1992, therefore it is suitable for studying systems at equilibrium. Plain, sandy-loam, deep calcareous soil (unique combination of climate-soil in Europe), representative of Po plain conditions.

SITE MANAGER CONTACT: Carlo Grignani, email: carlo.grignani@unito.it;

Zavattaro, L., Monaco, S., Sacco, D., Grignani, C., 2012. Options to reduce N loss from maize in intensive cropping systems in Northern Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 147, 24–35.
Borda T., Celi L., Zavattaro L., Sacco D., Barberis E., 2011. Effect of agronomic management on risk of suspended solids and phosphorus losses from soil to waters. J Soils Sediments 11:440–45.
Monaco S., D. Sacco, T. Borda, C. Grignani, 2010. Field measurement of net nitrogen mineralization of manured soil cropped to maize. Biology and Fertility of Soils. Vol.: 46(2): 179-184.
Bertora, C., Zavattaro, L., Sacco, D., Monaco, S., Grignani, C., 2009. Soil organic matter dynamics and losses in manured maize-based forage systems. Europ. J. Agronomy 30, 177–186.
Alluvione, F., Bertora, C., Zavattaro, L., Grignani, C., 2009. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions following green manure and compost fertilization in corn. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 74: 384-395.
Bertora, C., Alluvione, F., Zavattaro, L., Cuk, D., Grignani, C., 2009. CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes from maize-based forage systems. In: C. Grignani, M. Acutis, L. Zavattaro, L. Bechini, C., Bertora, P. Marino Gallina, D. Sacco (Eds). Proceedings of the 16th Nitrogen Workshop - Connecting different scales of nitrogen use in agriculture. 28th June – 1st July 2009, Turin, Italy, pp. 125-126.
Bertora C., Alluvione F., Zavattaro L., van Groenigen J.W., Velthof G., Grignani C., 2008. Pig slurry treatment modifies slurry composition, N2O, and CO2 emissions after soil incorporation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 40; p. 1999-2006.
Monaco, S., Hatch, D.J., Sacco, D., Bertora, C., Grignani, 2008. Changes in chemical and biochemical soil properties induced by 11-yr repeated additions of different organic materials in maize-based forage systems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 608-615.
Grignani, C., Zavattaro L., Sacco, D., Monaco, S., 2007. Production, nitrogen and carbon balance of maize-based forage systems. Eur J Agronomy, 26, 442-453.
Lo Russo, S., Zavattaro, L., Acutis, M., Zuppi, G.M., 2003. Chloride profile technique to estimate water movement through unsatured zone in a cropped area in subhumid climate (Po Valley—NW Italy). Journal of Hydrology 270, 65–74.
Zavattaro, L., Grignani, C., 2001. Deriving Hydrological Parameters for Modeling Water Flow under Field Conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 655.

Copyleft licence - ICFAR project